Influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by various types of influenza viruses. The source of the viruses is human, especially at early stage of the disease. The virus releases during talking, coughing or sneezing during 4-7 days of the disease. Infection of healthy people occurs via airborne.
Incubation period lasts 12 – 48 hours. Typical influenza starts acutely, often with chill. Temperature of the body during 24 hours reaches maximum (38-40 degrees C). Clinical manifestations are made of syndrom of common toxicosis (fever, weakness, sweatiness, muscle pains, severe headache, pains in eye-ball, watering, photophobia) and signs of respiratory organs damage (dry cough, congested pipes, gravel voice, stuffiness in nose).
During examination is distinguished blood pressure lowering, heart tones muting. Diffuse lesion of upper parts of repiratory organs (rhinitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis, laryngitis) is determined. Peripheral blood is characterized with leukopenia, neutropenia, monocytosis, Blood sedimentation rate is not high. Often influenza may result in such complications as pneumonia, frontal sinusitis, genyantritis, otitis.
Recognition of influenza during epidemic is not complicated and is based on clinical and epidemiological data. In interepidemic time influenza occurs rarely and diagnosis may be made with the help of laboratory methods such as distinguishing influenza agent in mucus of mouth and nose with the help of fluorescent antibodies. For retrospective diagnosis are used serological methods.
Patients with uncomplicated influenza are treated at home and are settled into separate room or are isolated from family by a cover. During fever stage is recommended bed regimen and warmth (plentiful hot drink, warmer to the feet). Polyvitamins are prescribed. Widely are used pathogenetic and symptomatic drugs such as antihistamines (suprastin). To improve drainage function of respiratory organs are used expectorant drugs.
To prevent influenza is recommended vaccination. Patients diseased with influenza should eat from their own dishes which should be sterilized with boiling-hot water. People who look after patintes should use mask.